What Happened Today – July 27?

Never be a prisoner of your past. It was just a lesson, not a life sentence. – Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam

On this day:

1214 – King John of England was defeated by the French King Philip II in the First battle of Bouvines, following which the English King lost Normandy and his other possessions, earning the nickname – John “Lackland.”

1377 – The first ever example of quarantine was established in Rugusa (now Dubroknik) with the city council isolating newcomers from plague areas for 30 days (later 40 days, quaranta in Italian).

1549 – Jesuit priest Francis Xavier became the first Christian Missionary to reach Japan, but was allowed to enter the port only on August 15.

1586 – Sir Walter Raleigh, who rose to fame rapidly in the favor of Queen Elizabeth I, brings the first ever tobacco to England from Virginia. He was arrested and beheaded, after the demise of Queen in 1603, by King James I.

1689 – Jacobite Scottish Highlanders under the leadership of Viscount Dundee defeated the royalist force under General MacKay in the Battle of Killicrankie.

1789 – The first ever U.S. Federal government agency – Department of Foreign Affairs was established by the US Congress. It was later renamed as the Department of State.

1794 – Antoine-Christophe Merlin and other conspirators initiated the Thermidorian Reaction, a revolt that ultimately resulted in the fall of Maximilien de Robespierre and the end of the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution.

1830 – The July Revolution began in France, leading to the abdication of Charles X and bringing Louis-Philippe to the throne.

1866 – The first ever Atlantic telegraph cable – 1,686 miles long, was successfully laid by the steamship SS Great Eastern designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, in the third attempt.

1884 – The East Cleveland Street Railway Company begins the first U.S. commercial electric streetcar line in Cleveland, Ohio, on the Bentley-Knight system.

1909 – British ship SS Waratah is last seen en-route from Durban to Cape Town. There has been no trace of the ship till date and 211 people on board went missing.

1909 – The world’s first military airplane completed one of the final qualifying flights by Orville Wright for its sale to the U.S. Army Signal Corps.

1919 – The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 was ignited after a young black man was stoned and drowned in Lake Michigan for swimming in an area reserved for whites.

1921 – Frederick Banting, who was honored with the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine, along with his colleague Charles Best isolated insulin at the University of Toronto.

1940 – Warner Bros. most popular cartoon character – Bugs Bunny, created by Tex Avery and Bob Givens (Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series), was first debuted in “Wild Hare.”

1953 – The United Nations sign armistice with North Korea to end the active fighting phase of Korean War and divide Korea at the 38th parallel.

1960 – US Vice-president Richard Nixon nominated for presidential candidate at Republican convention in Chicago.

1982 – Alan Menken and Howard Ashman’s musical “Little Shop of Horrors” opened Off-Broadway at the Orpheum Theatre in NYC.

1999 – Tony Hawk, a pioneer in modern vertical skateboarding, became the first skateboarder to land a “900.”

2003 – “Magdalo” – A group of 321 Filipino armed soldiers take over Oakwood Premier Ayala Center in Makati City, in an effort to show Filipino people the alleged corruption of the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration.

2012 – Queen Elizabeth II officially opens the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.

2013 – First Przewalski’s horse, believed to have been extinct in 1969, was born via artificial insemination at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute as part of a worldwide effort to rebuild the wild herds.

2015 – Indian Scientist and the 11th President of India – A. P. J. [Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen] Abdul Kalam, passed away at the age of 83.

2017 – Amazon founder Jeff Bezos briefly becomes world’s richest man at $91.4bn overtaking Bill Gates for half a day.

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