What happened on this day – August 4?

If history repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, how incapable must Man be of learning from experience. – George Bernard Shaw.

On this day:

367 – Gratian receives the title of Augustus under his father, Valentinian I.

1704 – Britain gained control of Gibraltar during the War of the Spanish Succession, with “The Rock” subsequently becoming a British colony and a symbol of British naval strength.

1783 – Mount Asama erupts in Japan, killing about 1,400 people. The eruption causes a famine, which results in an additional 20,000 deaths.

1790 – U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton established the Revenue Marine Service, which became the U.S. Coast Guard.

1796 – The Battle of Lonato of the French Revolutionary Wars, comes to an end with Napolean leading the French Army of Italy to victory.

1821 – Russian Antarctic expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen returns to Kronshtadt after becoming the 1st to circumnavigate Antarctica

1854 – The famous “Walden” or “A Life in the Woods,” by Henry David Thoreau was first published, selling just around 300 copies a year. In modern times, the classic is one of the classroom topics around the world.

1914 – Great Britain declared war on Germany, in response to the German invasion of Belgium, entering the World War I. President Woodrow Wilson formally proclaims the neutrality of the United States as the war begins in Europe.

1918 – Adolf Hitler receives The Iron Cross, a military decoration in Prussia for his bravery recommended by his Jewish superior Lieutenant Hugo Gutmann.

1936 – Jesse Owens wins his second Gold in the Berlin Olympics with a long jump of 8.06 meters beating German Luz Long. He later credited the victory to a technical advice given by Luz Long.

1942 – United States and Mexico sign the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement, which led to the creation of Bracero Program, the largest guest-worker program in the US history, until its closure in 1964.

1944 – Anne Frank was arrested along with seven others by the Nazi Police in German occupied Amsterdam. She was hiding in an annex disguised behind a bookcase for 761 days. She maintained a diary (Later Known as Anne Frank diary) depicting her life through the hiding period.

1946 – An earthquake of magnitude 8.0 hits northern Dominican Republic, killing one hundred people and leaving 20,000 people homeless.

1975 – AIA building in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia which houses United States and Swedish embassies was captured by the Japanese Red Army, a terrorist organization. They demanded the release of their several imprisoned leaders in exchange for 53 hostages.

1995 – One of the last major battles of Croatian War of Independence, Operation Storm began. This victory was a major factor in the outcome of the Bosnian War.

2007 – Phoenix Spacecraft was launched by The United States of America from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It landed on Mars on May 25, 2008 and operated till November 2nd.

2012 – Oscar Pistorius of South Africa becomes the first amputee to compete at the Olympics by running in an opening heat of the men’s 400-meter.

2019 – 24 year old Connor Stephen Betts shoots down 9 people and wounded 17 others in just 32 seconds near the entrance of Ned Peppers Bar in Dayton, Ohio, United States. He was killed by the responding officers.

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